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Sapphire

Single crystal Sapphire possesses a unique combination of excellent optical, physical and chemical properties, the most useful is that it is the hardest of the oxide crystals. Sapphire maintains its strength even at high temperatures. It has good thermal properties, excellent electrical and dielectric properties, and is chemically resistant to common acids and alkali at temperatures up to 1000C as well as to HF below 300C.

Sapphire is anisotropic hexagonal crystal. Its properties depend on crystallographic direction (relative to the optical C-axis). Large sized sapphire crystals up to 4 inches in diameter are available in TEMTO. TEMTO sapphire crystals are mainly produced by two methodTGT and Czochraski(CZ) for the highest optical and substrate quality. We also use Verneuil´s mehtod (also called flame fusion method) sapphire for normal optical and substrate quality.


Main Properties

 

Crystal Properties
Crystal Growth Method
Czochralski (CZ) or TGT
or Verneuil´s (also called flame fusion)
Maximum Size
<100mm
Optical Properties
Transmission Range
0.18~5.5m
Reflection Loss, for two surfaces at 5 m
14%
dn/dt (@633nm), /K
13x10-6
dn/d=0
1.5m
Refractive Index
See below
Wavelength (m)
no
ne
Wavelength (m)
no
ne
0.185
/
/
0.800
1.76013
1.75220
0.193
1.92879
1.91743
1.064
1.75449
1.74663
0.213
1.88903
1.87839
1.320
1.75009
1.74227
0.226
1.87017
1.85991
1.550
1.74618
1.73838
0.248
1.84696
1.83719
2.010
1.73748
1.72973
0.266
1.83304
1.82358
2.703
1.71900
1.71100
0.280
1.82437
1.81509
3.333
1.70100
1.69300
0.308
1.81096
1.80198
3.704
1.68700
1.67900
0.355
1.79598
1.78732
4.000
1.67400
1.66600
0.488
1.77530
1.76711
4.348
1.65800
1.65000
0.532
1.77170
1.76355
4.762
1.63600
1.62800
0.633
1.76590
1.75787
5.000
1.62300
1.61500
0.780
1.76068
1.75274
5.263
1.60700
1.59900
Transmission Curve See Below
Crystallographic Properties
Syngony
Hexagonal System
Crystal Form
Polycrystalline or Monocrystalline
Lattice Constant, Angstrom (Å)
a=4.785, c=12.991
Cleavability
<1011>, <1012>, imperfect
Physical Properties
Density, g/cm3 at 20 C
3.98
Mohs Hardness
9
Dielectric Constant 103-109 Hz at 298 K Parallel to c-axis (//)
Perpendicular to c-axis ()
11.5
9.3
Melting point, C
2040
Thermal Conductivity, W/mK at at 300 K
Parallel to c-axis (//)
Perpendicular to c-axis ()
35.1
33.0
Thermal Expansion, 1/K at 298 K
Parallel to c-axis (//)
Perpendicular to c-axis ()
5.6x10-6
5.0x10-6
Specific Heat Capacity, Wxs/g/k
0.418
Bandgap, eV
9.9
Knoop Hardness, Kg/mm2
1370
Youngs Modulus, Gpa
335
Shear Modulus, GPan
148
Bulk Modulus, Gpa at 273 K
240
Poissons Ratio
0.25
Elastic Coefficient
C11=496, C12=164, C13=115, C33=498, C44=148
Apparent Elastic Limit
275 MPa (13000psi)
Chemical Properties
Chemical Formula
Al2O3
Molecular Weight
101.94
Solubility in water at 20C, g/100cm3
98x10-6
Solubility in acids
Soluble

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